What is Ecosystem?


An ecosystem is a complex system that includes organisms and their environment. It is linked together through energy flow and nutrient cycles. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis, which is then incorporated into plant tissue. The interactions between the biotic and abiotic components influence the ecosystem’s structure and functions.

Biotic components

The biotic components of an ecosystem include both living and non-living organisms. These components vary from ecosystem to ecosystem and region to region. They play a major role in determining the diversity and number of biotic factors within an ecosystem. These components are largely responsible for the growth and survival of different species within an ecosystem. Some abiotic factors in an ecosystem include air and soil quality, pH levels, and depth of water.

All living things, including humans, are influenced by biotic factors. This is true for plants, animals, and bacteria. The three major groups of biotic factors are producers, consumers, and decomposers. The producers, also known as autotrophs, create their food and energy by converting inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water into energy. On the other hand, consumers use inorganic materials as energy sources to feed their bodies.

Another important biotic component of an ecosystem is a community. A community is a group of members of the same species that share common resources and living space. The basic unit of a community is a population. The composition of a population is influenced by the interactions of members of the species. An ecological niche is the result of these interactions.


An ecosystem is a complex system whose components are both living and non-living. These components determine the structure, functions, and behaviour of organisms in the ecosystem. The abiotic components of an ecosystem include sunlight, soil, and climatic factors. They also include humic substances, soil pH, and mineral elements. These components are necessary to produce food and energy for ecosystem organisms.

Ecosystems provide people and society with a range of goods and services. These goods and services are commonly referred to as ecosystem goods. These goods and services can range from food and water to fuel, construction materials, and medicinal plants. Ecosystems also provide ecosystem services, which include improving things of value, maintaining hydrological cycles, cleaning the air, and polluting crops. Human impacts, however, can negatively affect the structure of ecosystems. Some of the human impacts on ecosystems include soil loss, air pollution, habitat fragmentation, and introduced species.

An ecosystem’s abiotic and biotic components interact to ensure the well-being of all organisms. The biotic components are interdependent and are connected by energy and nutrient cycles. The biotic components feed on the products of the abiotic components. Plants and animals, including insects, play a major role in moving matter throughout the ecosystem. They help determine the quantity of plant biomass and help with the nutrient cycle.


Ecosystems contain a variety of living organisms. They include animals, plants, and basic inorganic compounds. A significant source of energy in an ecosystem is sunlight. The ecosystem also includes primary and secondary consumers, including plants and animals. Primary consumers consume plants and other organic substances. Secondary consumers feed on animals, such as cats and dogs. Tertiary consumers, such as humans, consume non-plant materials.

An ecosystem can perform many functions, including regulating energy flow and recycling materials. This interaction between biotic and abiotic components is called ecosystem dynamics. Several principles govern ecosystem dynamics. These principles are illustrated in Figure 3.1. To understand how ecosystems work, we must understand the functions that each element of an ecosystem performs.

The basic functions of an ecosystem include biomass production, energy flow, and nutrient cycling. An ecosystem can be as small as a pond or as large as a sea. The number of species diversity determines the structure and functions of an ecosystem.


Consumers are living organisms that do not produce their food and rely on other organisms to provide food. They are classified as part of the food chain and are joined by producers and decomposers. As the name implies, consumers get energy from the food they consume and use it to perform different physiological functions. They form the second level of the food chain, and their number is much smaller than that of producers.

Consumers are categorized into three main types. The first group are herbivores, which eat plants directly, and the second group is carnivores. The third type of consumer is the decomposer, which feeds on dead organisms and plants. These organisms break down the waste products of the ecosystem and return them to the soil.

Consumers are part of the ecosystem because they need food to survive. They are classified into four categories according to their type of food. The animal category a creature belongs to is determined by its food source, not by its species, but by its habits and lifestyle. For example, a grizzly bear only eats salmon during certain seasons of the year. In addition, a single species of animal can fall into more than one category, depending on its diet and source of energy.