What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. There are several ways to treat this disorder, also known as diabetes. If you have a family history of diabetes, you may be at higher risk of developing this disease. The best way to manage this condition is to follow a healthy diet and exercise.
Hyperglycemia is an elevated level of blood glucose. It is a common problem in people with diabetes mellitus. It is caused when the body cannot correctly process the hormone insulin. Without insulin, glucose levels in the blood can increase dangerously. When insulin production returns to normal, blood glucose levels return to normal. However, if glucose levels are not controlled, diabetes can lead to dangerous conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome.
There are several ways to diagnose hyperglycemia in diabetes Mellitus. It can be suspected based on symptoms or detected incidentally during blood tests. First, a detailed medical history should be taken. The doctor should pay particular attention to lifestyle diseases, recent illnesses or injuries, and medications. They should also ask if the patient is adhering to their medication regimen. A clinical physical examination is also performed to determine if the patient has any signs of dehydration. Neurological tests are also performed to rule out other underlying conditions causing hyperglycemia. Blood tests and urine investigations are then ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
Hyperglycemia in diabetes Mellitus is a severe problem that should be treated promptly. If it persists for over three hours, it can lead to serious health complications. The condition is often caused by several factors, including improper diet, food intake, and physical activity. In addition, improperly taking diabetes medication or skipping a dose can result in hyperglycemia.
The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can be achieved through routine tests or based on suspicion of symptoms. The diagnosis disclosure can generate many emotions and make the patient reluctant to follow treatment. A comprehensive approach to diabetes care based on clinical judgment and ongoing follow-up is prudent for all persons with diabetes.
The main types of diabetes are Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is caused by the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetics may experience ketoacidosis. Type 1 diabetes is the most common type. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin or a defect in the pancreatic cells. Gestational diabetes mellitus is diabetes affecting pregnant women.
A patient’s fasting venous plasma glucose concentration (FPG) is usually less than 6.1 mmol/L. Patients with hyperglycemia should have a repeat A1C test to confirm the diagnosis. The OGTT tests may also be used to confirm the diagnosis. OGTT tests also confirm the degree of glucose intolerance.
The progression of diabetes mellitus is often associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. These infections are most common in older adults and majorly cause hospitalization in people with diabetes mellitus. As a result, it is critical to prevent and manage respiratory infections in people with diabetes.
Nerve damage is another consequence of diabetes, including the nerves controlling the heart and digestive system. In addition, diabetes can lead to irreversible kidney disease that requires a kidney transplant. Additionally, diabetes can cause problems with the eyes and skin. Consequently, people with diabetes should regularly visit their medical to monitor any changes in how they feel.
Studies of surgical complications in patients with diabetes mellitus have found increased risks of post-operative infection. In 2003, this increased risk was present in 50% of cases. In addition, patients with diabetes had a higher risk of developing sepsis and tuberculosis.