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Ocular Manifestations of Steven Johnson Syndrome

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The ocular manifestations of Steven Johnson Syndrome are not uniform. The syndrome can occur in people of different ages and may be triggered by various agents. The severity of ocular involvement was also variable. The current study reviewed cases of the syndrome and documented the clinical and laboratory findings. Symptoms included fever, skin rash, sloughing, erythematous macules, and mild-to-moderate lid edema. Patients also presented with membranous conjunctivitis, chemosis, and conjunctival injection.

Symptoms

You must see a doctor if you’ve had a recent skin reaction and think it may be SJS. The condition can be severe, causing severe damage within a few weeks. It’s often associated with blisters and sores, skin shedding, and even the detachment of internal organs. It can also lead to fatigue, blindness, and chronic pain. Treatment for SJS includes antibiotics, steroids, and painkillers. It may also require an IV to administer food and hydration to the patient.

Patients with weakened immune systems are especially at risk for this disorder. People with a family history of the disorder may also have a higher risk of developing the condition. Doctors can identify the condition through a physical examination and may ask about family history. They may also do a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because this syndrome can lead to other skin problems, it is imperative to be treated as soon as possible.

Treatment

Steven Johnson syndrome is a rare but potentially deadly disorder, which manifests as similar symptoms to the common cold and flu. These include a sore throat, cough, burning eyes, headache, and vomiting. As a result, it is crucial to seek medical advice as early as possible. Treatment includes correcting the electrolyte balance in the body and using oral and topical anesthetics. In addition, intravenous steroids and immunoglobulin therapy can ease the discomfort.

Treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome is generally the same as for other skin disorders. Initially, the skin is treated with topical anesthetics. Surgery may also be necessary to cover areas that do not heal. Occasionally, patients may receive liquid nutrition through a nasal tube.

Recurrence

Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a severe disorder that can occur without warning. If untreated, it may even be fatal. Therefore, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention for symptoms. Symptoms include skin discoloration, bumps, and scars. In severe cases, hair loss and nail problems can also occur. Certain medications should not be used by people who have this condition.

Although the mortality rate of SJS and TEN is between one and five percent, these figures are considerably higher for elderly patients and those with sizeable epidermal detachment. Additionally, a patient’s genetic background can influence the incidence of SJS or TEN.

Similarity to Sjogren’s syndrome

Researchers have noted a similarity between Steven Johnson syndrome and Sjogren’s syndrome. The study results show that similar histopathologic features characterize the two disorders. Moreover, the researchers found a correlation between salivary gland histopathologic diagnoses and the phenotypic features of Sjogren’s syndrome. For example, Vivino FB and Hermann GA changed the diagnosis of primary Sjogren’s syndrome after the second evaluation of a minor salivary gland biopsy. Similarly, Fisher BA and Moutsopoulos HM have standardized labial salivary gland histopathology in primary Sjogren’s syndrome clinical trials. They also found a connection between the clinical manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome and the risk of lymphoma development.

The authors report the similarity of the syndromes using the Saxon and Schirmer tests. Additionally, they found that salivary gland ultrasound abnormalities are reliable and consistent.

Incidence

Steven Johnson syndrome is estimated to be between 1.1 and 7.1 cases per million individuals worldwide. It is higher in Africa because of HIV and crude drug use prevalence. With the increasing incidence of the syndrome, research is needed to improve initial management and treatment procedures. Current studies focus on the anatomical structure and physiology of the affected region. They also discuss drug-induced symptoms and the relationship between structural features and physiological changes.

Symptoms of the syndrome include painful red rashes on the face, limbs, and trunk. The affected areas may also experience blistering. These skin lesions detach and expose red, oozing dermis. Patients may also show the Nikolsky sign, which indicates the presence of erosions or blisters on gentle rubbing. In addition to skin-based symptoms, the syndrome can also affect the liver.

Complications

The first symptoms of Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS)/TEN are painful, red skin lesions that affect the face, trunk, and limbs. The skin lesions are composed of blisters that often merge to form sheets of detachment that expose red, oozing dermis. In addition to painful skin lesions, patients with SJS/TEN may develop keratoconjunctivitis and xerostomia.

Steven Johnson syndrome is usually cured with medical treatment. However, the symptoms are similar to those of typical respiratory and infectious diseases. The symptoms progress gradually until lesions from all over the body. In severe cases, the condition may lead to blindness and even scarring of the lungs. Patients may also develop secondary infections such as cellulitis. These infections may lead to life-threatening conditions like an amputation.

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